Raptor II

  • Embedded System.

  • STM32 ARM Cortex M4.

  • Independent Wheel Drive.

  • Dual-Axis Steering.

  • Quad Motor (5:1).

  • True Speed Control.

  • Electronic Steering Differential.

  • Advanced PID Control Systems.

  • 6S Power.


Project Overview

Raptor II is my biggest personal project to date. Its name taking inspiration from the Velociraptor, matching the characteristics of being smart, and fast. This car is the result of extensive research and development. There were many failures and challenges along the way, but through persistent problem solving, the project was completed, producing something truly unique in the RC community.


Having never even owned an "off the shelf" RC car, or having any mechanical engineering experience, this project was very ambitious. I started this project in February 2020, completing it in October of the same year. During this time, there were two predecessors to Raptor II. An initial prototype, and Raptor I.


The microcontroller is connected to multiple ultrasonic sensors and a H-bridge, which controls the speed and direction of the 4 motors. The car consists of very few components, the most expensive one being the battery.


A simple sensor-interface circuit was designed in order to minimise loose wires, making testing a lot easier.


  • Ultrasonic Sensors

  • H-bridge motor controller.

  • Arduino Uno board.

  • 4800mAh Lithium Ion Battery


The microcontroller is the ATmega328p associated with the Arduino Uno board.

Main features:

  • 5V operating voltage.

  • 14 Digital I/O pins (6 for PWM output).

  • 6 Analogue input pins.

  • 32Kb flash memory.

  • 16MHz Clock Speed.

These small boards are extremely popular for small projects such as this one. The arduino function library is one of the best out there. Flashing the code to the board is also very straight forward.

Buy this board here: https://amzn.to/2Do6fdQ

arduino uno board atmega328p

Ultra-sonic Sensors

The sensor used is the Aukru HC-SR04. A total of 3 sensors were used for this project. The sensors emit ultrasonic sound waves at a 15 degree arc. When the waves hit an object nearby, they bounce back and hit the sensor. The sensor uses the echo pin on the PCB to transfer this information back to the microcontroller.

Aukru HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor
Aukru HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor

Buy this sensors here: https://amzn.to/2zonxDQ

Car Chassis

The car chassis was purchased a kit on Amazon The kit includes 4 wheels, a chassis and 4 motors.

You can buy similar kits here: https://amzn.to/2DpUpjw

Arduino Self-Driving Car Kit
Arduino Self-Driving Car Kit


I used a rechargeable Lithium Ion battery. The capacity is 4800mAh. A battery of this capacity can power the car for hours. Although, such large capacity is not needed. You can use standard AA batteries, but you would just need to replace them when they run out.

4800mAh Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batter

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